Saturday, 31 July 2010

July 31 - Events

July 31st Details:
July 31 Events:
30 BC – Battle of Alexandria - Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian's forces. Mark Anthony subsequently commits suicide as a result of most of his army deserting.
781 – Oldest recorded eruption of Mt. Fuji (Traditional Japanese date: July 6, 781).
904 – Thessalonica falls in a battle to the Arabs, who then destroy the city.
1009 – Pope Sergius IV becomes the 142nd pope (succeeding Pope John XVIII).
1200 – Attempted usurpation of John Komnenos the Fat.
1423 – Battle of Cravant – the French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne (Hundred Years' War).
1451 – Charles VII of France orders the arrest of Jacques Cœur.
1492 – Expulsion of the Jews from Spain when the Alhambra Decree takes effect.
1498 – Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to discover the island of Trinidad - his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, .
1588 – The Spanish Armada is spotted off the coast of England.
1655 – Russian army enters the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnius - Russo-Polish War (1654-1667).
1658 – Proclamation of Aurangzeb as Moghul emperor of India.
1667 – Treaty of Breda ends the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
1703 – Daniel Defoe is placed in a pillory for the crime of seditious libel after publishing a politically satirical pamphlet - natural justice leads him to be pelted with flowers.
1741 – Invasion of Upper Austria & Bohemia by Charles Albert of Bavaria.
1790 – Inventor Samuel Hopkins is issued the First U.S. patent, for a potash process.
1856 – Christchurch, New Zealand is chartered as a city.
1865 – First narrow gauge mainline railway in the world opens at Grandchester, Australia.
1895 – The Basque Nationalist Party is founded by Basque nationalist leader Sabino Arana.
1913 – The Balkan States signs an armistice at Bucharest.
1919 – Weimar constitution is adopted by the German national assembly, which comes into force on August 14.
1936 – The International Olympic Committee announces that the 1940 Summer Olympics will be held in Tokyo.
1938 – Bulgaria signs a non-aggression pact with Greece & other states (Turkey, Romania, Yugoslavia).
1938 – Engraved gold & silver plates from King Darius in Persepolis are discovered by Archaeologists.
1941 – Holocaust - Instructions by Adolf Hitler to Hermann Göring leads to orders for SS General Reinhard Heydrich to "submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material & financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired final solution of the Jewish question."
1945 – Pierre Laval, the fugitive former leader of Vichy France, surrenders to Allied soldiers in Austria.
1945 – John K. Giles attempts to escape from Alcatraz prison.
1948 – New York International Airport (later renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport) is dedicated at Idlewild Field in New York, .
1951 – Japan Airlines is established.
1954 – First ascent of K2 - by an Italian expedition led by Ardito Desio.
1959 – Basque separatist organisation ETA is founded.
1964 – Ranger 7 sends back the first close-up photographs of the moon (Ranger program).
1970 – Black Tot Day - last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy.
1971 – Apollo 15 astronauts become the first to ride in a lunar rover (Apollo program).
1972 – Operation Motorman - British troops move into the no-go areas of Belfast & Derry, Northern Ireland.
1976 – Viking 1 – NASA releases the famous Face on Mars photo (Viking program).
1981 – General Omar Torrijos of Panama dies in a plane crash.
1981 – A total solar eclipse occurs.
1991 – The Medininkai Massacre in Lithuania.
1992 – A Thai Airways Airbus A300-310 crashes into a mountain north of Kathmandu, Nepal.
1992 – Georgia joins the United Nations.
2002 – Hebrew University of Jerusalem is attacked when a bomb explodes in a cafeteria.
2006 – Fidel Castro hands over power temporarily to brother Raúl Castro.

Posted by ALCHEssMIST - Alchemipedia - Cetacographer - Nirvana alliance.

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